Welcome to Knowledge Base!

KB at your finger tips

This is one stop global knowledge base where you can learn about all the products, solutions and support features.

Create a New React App – React

Create a New React App

Use an integrated toolchain for the best user and developer experience.

This page describes a few popular React toolchains which help with tasks like:

  • Scaling to many files and components.

  • Using third-party libraries from npm.

  • Detecting common mistakes early.

  • Live-editing CSS and JS in development.

  • Optimizing the output for production.

The toolchains recommended on this page don’t require configuration to get started.

You Might Not Need a Toolchain

If you don’t experience the problems described above or don’t feel comfortable using JavaScript tools yet, consider adding React as a plain <script> tag on an HTML page, optionally with JSX.

This is also the easiest way to integrate React into an existing website. You can always add a larger toolchain if you find it helpful!

The React team primarily recommends these solutions:

  • If you’re learning React or creating a new single-page app, use Create React App.

  • If you’re building a server-rendered website with Node.js, try Next.js.

  • If you’re building a static content-oriented website, try Gatsby.

  • If you’re building a component library or integrating with an existing codebase, try More Flexible Toolchains.

Create React App

Create React App is a comfortable environment for learning React, and is the best way to start building a new single-page application in React.

It sets up your development environment so that you can use the latest JavaScript features, provides a nice developer experience, and optimizes your app for production. You’ll need to have Node >= 14.0.0 and npm >= 5.6 on your machine. To create a project, run:

npx create-react-app my-app
cd my-app
npm start


npx on the first line is not a typo — it’s a package runner tool that comes with npm 5.2+.

Create React App doesn’t handle backend logic or databases; it just creates a frontend build pipeline, so you can use it with any backend you want. Under the hood, it uses Babel and webpack, but you don’t need to know anything about them.

When you’re ready to deploy to production, running npm run build will create an optimized build of your app in the build folder. You can learn more about Create React App from its README and the User Guide.


Next.js is a popular and lightweight framework for static and server‑rendered applications built with React. It includes styling and routing solutions out of the box, and assumes that you’re using Node.js as the server environment.

Learn Next.js from its official guide.


Gatsby is the best way to create static websites with React. It lets you use React components, but outputs pre-rendered HTML and CSS to guarantee the fastest load time.

Learn Gatsby from its official guide and a gallery of starter kits.

More Flexible Toolchains

The following toolchains offer more flexibility and choice. We recommend them to more experienced users:

  • Neutrino combines the power of webpack with the simplicity of presets, and includes a preset for React apps and React components.

  • Nx is a toolkit for full-stack monorepo development, with built-in support for React, Next.js, Express, and more.

  • Parcel is a fast, zero configuration web application bundler that works with React.

  • Razzle is a server-rendering framework that doesn’t require any configuration, but offers more flexibility than Next.js.

Creating a Toolchain from Scratch

A JavaScript build toolchain typically consists of:

  • A package manager, such as Yarn or npm. It lets you take advantage of a vast ecosystem of third-party packages, and easily install or update them.

  • A bundler, such as webpack or Parcel. It lets you write modular code and bundle it together into small packages to optimize load time.

  • A compiler such as Babel. It lets you write modern JavaScript code that still works in older browsers.

If you prefer to set up your own JavaScript toolchain from scratch, check out this guide that re-creates some of the Create React App functionality.

Don’t forget to ensure your custom toolchain is correctly set up for production.

Is this page useful?Edit this page
CDN Links – React

CDN Links

Both React and ReactDOM are available over a CDN.

<script crossorigin src=""></script>
<script crossorigin src=""></script>

The versions above are only meant for development, and are not suitable for production. Minified and optimized production versions of React are available at:

<script crossorigin src=""></script>
<script crossorigin src=""></script>

To load a specific version of react and react-dom, replace 18 with the version number.

Why the crossorigin Attribute?

If you serve React from a CDN, we recommend to keep the crossorigin attribute set:

<script crossorigin src="..."></script>

We also recommend to verify that the CDN you are using sets the Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * HTTP header:

Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

This enables a better error handling experience in React 16 and later.

Is this page useful?Edit this page
Read article
Release Channels – React

Release Channels

React relies on a thriving open source community to file bug reports, open pull requests, and submit RFCs. To encourage feedback we sometimes share special builds of React that include unreleased features.

This document will be most relevant to developers who work on frameworks, libraries, or developer tooling. Developers who use React primarily to build user-facing applications should not need to worry about our prerelease channels.

Each of React’s release channels is designed for a distinct use case:

  • Latest is for stable, semver React releases. It’s what you get when you install React from npm. This is the channel you’re already using today. Use this for all user-facing React applications.

  • Next tracks the main branch of the React source code repository. Think of these as release candidates for the next minor semver release. Use this for integration testing between React and third party projects.

  • Experimental includes experimental APIs and features that aren’t available in the stable releases. These also track the main branch, but with additional feature flags turned on. Use this to try out upcoming features before they are released.

All releases are published to npm, but only Latest uses semantic versioning. Prereleases (those in the Next and Experimental channels) have versions generated from a hash of their contents and the commit date, e.g. 0.0.0-68053d940-20210623 for Next and 0.0.0-experimental-68053d940-20210623 for Experimental.

The only officially supported release channel for user-facing applications is Latest. Next and Experimental releases are provided for testing purposes only, and we provide no guarantees that behavior won’t change between releases. They do not follow the semver protocol that we use for releases from Latest.

By publishing prereleases to the same registry that we use for stable releases, we are able to take advantage of the many tools that support the npm workflow, like unpkg and CodeSandbox.

Latest Channel

Latest is the channel used for stable React releases. It corresponds to the latest tag on npm. It is the recommended channel for all React apps that are shipped to real users.

If you’re not sure which channel you should use, it’s Latest. If you’re a React developer, this is what you’re already using.

You can expect updates to Latest to be extremely stable. Versions follow the semantic versioning scheme. Learn more about our commitment to stability and incremental migration in our versioning policy.

Next Channel

The Next channel is a prerelease channel that tracks the main branch of the React repository. We use prereleases in the Next channel as release candidates for the Latest channel. You can think of Next as a superset of Latest that is updated more frequently.

The degree of change between the most recent Next release and the most recent Latest release is approximately the same as you would find between two minor semver releases. However, the Next channel does not conform to semantic versioning. You should expect occasional breaking changes between successive releases in the Next channel.

Do not use prereleases in user-facing applications.

Releases in Next are published with the next tag on npm. Versions are generated from a hash of the build’s contents and the commit date, e.g. 0.0.0-68053d940-20210623.

Using the Next Channel for Integration Testing

The Next channel is designed to support integration testing between React and other projects.

All changes to React go through extensive internal testing before they are released to the public. However, there are a myriad of environments and configurations used throughout the React ecosystem, and it’s not possible for us to test against every single one.

If you’re the author of a third party React framework, library, developer tool, or similar infrastructure-type project, you can help us keep React stable for your users and the entire React community by periodically running your test suite against the most recent changes. If you’re interested, follow these steps:

  • Set up a cron job using your preferred continuous integration platform. Cron jobs are supported by both CircleCI and Travis CI.

  • In the cron job, update your React packages to the most recent React release in the Next channel, using next tag on npm. Using the npm cli:

    npm update react@next react-dom@next

    Or yarn:

    yarn upgrade react@next react-dom@next

  • Run your test suite against the updated packages.

  • If everything passes, great! You can expect that your project will work with the next minor React release.

  • If something breaks unexpectedly, please let us know by filing an issue.

A project that uses this workflow is Next.js. (No pun intended! Seriously!) You can refer to their CircleCI configuration as an example.

Experimental Channel

Like Next, the Experimental channel is a prerelease channel that tracks the main branch of the React repository. Unlike Next, Experimental releases include additional features and APIs that are not ready for wider release.

Usually, an update to Next is accompanied by a corresponding update to Experimental. They are based on the same source revision, but are built using a different set of feature flags.

Experimental releases may be significantly different than releases to Next and Latest. Do not use Experimental releases in user-facing applications. You should expect frequent breaking changes between releases in the Experimental channel.

Releases in Experimental are published with the experimental tag on npm. Versions are generated from a hash of the build’s contents and the commit date, e.g. 0.0.0-experimental-68053d940-20210623.

What Goes Into an Experimental Release?

Experimental features are ones that are not ready to be released to the wider public, and may change drastically before they are finalized. Some experiments may never be finalized — the reason we have experiments is to test the viability of proposed changes.

For example, if the Experimental channel had existed when we announced Hooks, we would have released Hooks to the Experimental channel weeks before they were available in Latest.

You may find it valuable to run integration tests against Experimental. This is up to you. However, be advised that Experimental is even less stable than Next. We do not guarantee any stability between Experimental releases.

How Can I Learn More About Experimental Features?

Experimental features may or may not be documented. Usually, experiments aren’t documented until they are close to shipping in Next or Latest.

If a feature is not documented, they may be accompanied by an RFC.

We will post to the React blog when we’re ready to announce new experiments, but that doesn’t mean we will publicize every experiment.

You can always refer to our public GitHub repository’s history for a comprehensive list of changes.

Is this page useful?Edit this page
Read article
Hello World – React

Hello World

The smallest React example looks like this:

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(document.getElementById('root'));
root.render(<h1>Hello, world!</h1>);

It displays a heading saying “Hello, world!” on the page.

Try it on CodePen

Click the link above to open an online editor. Feel free to make some changes, and see how they affect the output. Most pages in this guide will have editable examples like this one.

How to Read This Guide

In this guide, we will examine the building blocks of React apps: elements and components. Once you master them, you can create complex apps from small reusable pieces.


This guide is designed for people who prefer learning concepts step by step. If you prefer to learn by doing, check out our practical tutorial. You might find this guide and the tutorial complementary to each other.

This is the first chapter in a step-by-step guide about main React concepts. You can find a list of all its chapters in the navigation sidebar. If you’re reading this from a mobile device, you can access the navigation by pressing the button in the bottom right corner of your screen.

Every chapter in this guide builds on the knowledge introduced in earlier chapters. You can learn most of React by reading the “Main Concepts” guide chapters in the order they appear in the sidebar. For example, “Introducing JSX” is the next chapter after this one.

Knowledge Level Assumptions

React is a JavaScript library, and so we’ll assume you have a basic understanding of the JavaScript language. If you don’t feel very confident, we recommend going through a JavaScript tutorial to check your knowledge level and enable you to follow along this guide without getting lost. It might take you between 30 minutes and an hour, but as a result you won’t have to feel like you’re learning both React and JavaScript at the same time.


This guide occasionally uses some newer JavaScript syntax in the examples. If you haven’t worked with JavaScript in the last few years, these three points should get you most of the way.

Let’s Get Started!

Keep scrolling down, and you’ll find the link to the next chapter of this guide right before the website footer.

Is this page useful?Edit this page
Read article
Introducing JSX – React

Introducing JSX

Consider this variable declaration:

const element = <h1>Hello, world!</h1>;

This funny tag syntax is neither a string nor HTML.

It is called JSX, and it is a syntax extension to JavaScript. We recommend using it with React to describe what the UI should look like. JSX may remind you of a template language, but it comes with the full power of JavaScript.

JSX produces React “elements”. We will explore rendering them to the DOM in the next section. Below, you can find the basics of JSX necessary to get you started.

Why JSX?

React embraces the fact that rendering logic is inherently coupled with other UI logic: how events are handled, how the state changes over time, and how the data is prepared for display.

Instead of artificially separating technologies by putting markup and logic in separate files, React separates concerns with loosely coupled units called “components” that contain both. We will come back to components in a further section, but if you’re not yet comfortable putting markup in JS, this talk might convince you otherwise.

React doesn’t require using JSX, but most people find it helpful as a visual aid when working with UI inside the JavaScript code. It also allows React to show more useful error and warning messages.

With that out of the way, let’s get started!

Embedding Expressions in JSX

In the example below, we declare a variable called name and then use it inside JSX by wrapping it in curly braces:

const name = 'Josh Perez';const element = <h1>Hello, {name}</h1>;

You can put any valid JavaScript expression inside the curly braces in JSX. For example, 2 + 2, user.firstName, or formatName(user) are all valid JavaScript expressions.

In the example below, we embed the result of calling a JavaScript function, formatName(user), into an <h1> element.

function formatName(user) {
return user.firstName + ' ' + user.lastName;

const user = {
firstName: 'Harper',
lastName: 'Perez'

const element = (
Hello, {formatName(user)}! </h1>

Try it on CodePen

We split JSX over multiple lines for readability. While it isn’t required, when doing this, we also recommend wrapping it in parentheses to avoid the pitfalls of automatic semicolon insertion.

JSX is an Expression Too

After compilation, JSX expressions become regular JavaScript function calls and evaluate to JavaScript objects.

This means that you can use JSX inside of if statements and for loops, assign it to variables, accept it as arguments, and return it from functions:

function getGreeting(user) {
if (user) {
return <h1>Hello, {formatName(user)}!</h1>; }
return <h1>Hello, Stranger.</h1>;}

Specifying Attributes with JSX

You may use quotes to specify string literals as attributes:

const element = <a href=""> link </a>;

You may also use curly braces to embed a JavaScript expression in an attribute:

const element = <img src={user.avatarUrl}></img>;

Don’t put quotes around curly braces when embedding a JavaScript expression in an attribute. You should either use quotes (for string values) or curly braces (for expressions), but not both in the same attribute.


Since JSX is closer to JavaScript than to HTML, React DOM uses camelCase property naming convention instead of HTML attribute names.

For example, class becomes className in JSX, and tabindex becomes tabIndex.

Specifying Children with JSX

If a tag is empty, you may close it immediately with />, like XML:

const element = <img src={user.avatarUrl} />;

JSX tags may contain children:

const element = (
<h2>Good to see you here.</h2>

JSX Prevents Injection Attacks

It is safe to embed user input in JSX:

const title = response.potentiallyMaliciousInput;
// This is safe:
const element = <h1>{title}</h1>;

By default, React DOM escapes any values embedded in JSX before rendering them. Thus it ensures that you can never inject anything that’s not explicitly written in your application. Everything is converted to a string before being rendered. This helps prevent XSS (cross-site-scripting) attacks.

JSX Represents Objects

Babel compiles JSX down to React.createElement() calls.

These two examples are identical:

const element = (
<h1 className="greeting">
Hello, world!

const element = React.createElement(
{className: 'greeting'},
'Hello, world!'

React.createElement() performs a few checks to help you write bug-free code but essentially it creates an object like this:

// Note: this structure is simplified
const element = {
type: 'h1',
props: {
className: 'greeting',
children: 'Hello, world!'

These objects are called “React elements”. You can think of them as descriptions of what you want to see on the screen. React reads these objects and uses them to construct the DOM and keep it up to date.

We will explore rendering React elements to the DOM in the next section.


We recommend using the “Babel” language definition for your editor of choice so that both ES6 and JSX code is properly highlighted.

Is this page useful?Edit this page
Read article
Rendering Elements – React

Rendering Elements

Elements are the smallest building blocks of React apps.

An element describes what you want to see on the screen:

const element = <h1>Hello, world</h1>;

Unlike browser DOM elements, React elements are plain objects, and are cheap to create. React DOM takes care of updating the DOM to match the React elements.


One might confuse elements with a more widely known concept of “components”. We will introduce components in the next section. Elements are what components are “made of”, and we encourage you to read this section before jumping ahead.

Rendering an Element into the DOM

Let’s say there is a <div> somewhere in your HTML file:

<div id="root"></div>

We call this a “root” DOM node because everything inside it will be managed by React DOM.

Applications built with just React usually have a single root DOM node. If you are integrating React into an existing app, you may have as many isolated root DOM nodes as you like.

To render a React element, first pass the DOM element to ReactDOM.createRoot(), then pass the React element to root.render():

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(
const element = <h1>Hello, world</h1>;

Try it on CodePen

It displays “Hello, world” on the page.

Updating the Rendered Element

React elements are immutable. Once you create an element, you can’t change its children or attributes. An element is like a single frame in a movie: it represents the UI at a certain point in time.

With our knowledge so far, the only way to update the UI is to create a new element, and pass it to root.render().

Consider this ticking clock example:

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(

function tick() {
const element = (
<h1>Hello, world!</h1>
<h2>It is {new Date().toLocaleTimeString()}.</h2>

setInterval(tick, 1000);

Try it on CodePen

It calls root.render() every second from a setInterval() callback.


In practice, most React apps only call root.render() once. In the next sections we will learn how such code gets encapsulated into stateful components.

We recommend that you don’t skip topics because they build on each other.

React Only Updates What’s Necessary

React DOM compares the element and its children to the previous one, and only applies the DOM updates necessary to bring the DOM to the desired state.

You can verify by inspecting the last example with the browser tools:

DOM inspector showing granular updates

Even though we create an element describing the whole UI tree on every tick, only the text node whose contents have changed gets updated by React DOM.

In our experience, thinking about how the UI should look at any given moment, rather than how to change it over time, eliminates a whole class of bugs.

Is this page useful?Edit this page
Read article

Signup now!

Login / Signup as

Takes and get it done by experts

Find great opportunities and enjoy reading