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PHP / array_key_first — DevDocs

array_key_first

(PHP 7 >= 7.3.0, PHP 8)

array_key_first Gets the first key of an array

Description

array_key_first(array $array): int|string|null

Get the first key of the given array without affecting the internal array pointer.

Parameters

array

An array.

Return Values

Returns the first key of array if the array is not empty; null otherwise.

Examples

Example #1 Basic array_key_first() Usage

<?php
$array = ['a' => 1, 'b' => 2, 'c' => 3];

$firstKey = array_key_first($array);

var_dump($firstKey);
?>

The above example will output:

string(1) "a"

Notes

Tip

There are several ways to provide this functionality for versions prior to PHP 7.3.0. It is possible to use array_keys() , but that may be rather inefficient. It is also possible to use reset() and key() , but that may change the internal array pointer. An efficient solution, which does not change the internal array pointer, written as polyfill:

<?php
if (!function_exists('array_key_first')) {
    function array_key_first(array $arr) {
        foreach($arr as $key => $unused) {
            return $key;
        }
        return NULL;
    }
}
?>

See Also

  • array_key_last() - Gets the last key of an array
  • reset() - Set the internal pointer of an array to its first element
PHP / array_key_last — DevDocs

array_key_last

(PHP 7 >= 7.3.0, PHP 8)

array_key_last Gets the last key of an array

Description

array_key_last(array $array): int|string|null

Get the last key of the given array without affecting the internal array pointer.

Parameters

array

An array.

Return Values

Returns the last key of array if the array is not empty; null otherwise.

See Also

  • array_key_first() - Gets the first key of an array
  • end() - Set the internal pointer of an array to its last element
Read article
PHP / array_keys — DevDocs

array_keys

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

array_keys Return all the keys or a subset of the keys of an array

Description

array_keys(array $array): array
array_keys(array $array, mixed $filter_value, bool $strict = false): array

array_keys() returns the keys, numeric and string, from the array .

If a filter_value is specified, then only the keys for that value are returned. Otherwise, all the keys from the array are returned.

Parameters

array

An array containing keys to return.

filter_value

If specified, then only keys containing this value are returned.

strict

Determines if strict comparison (===) should be used during the search.

Return Values

Returns an array of all the keys in array .

Examples

Example #1 array_keys() example

<?php
$array = array(0 => 100, "color" => "red");
print_r(array_keys($array));

$array = array("blue", "red", "green", "blue", "blue");
print_r(array_keys($array, "blue"));

$array = array("color" => array("blue", "red", "green"),
               "size"  => array("small", "medium", "large"));
print_r(array_keys($array));
?>

The above example will output:

Array
(
    [0] => 0
    [1] => color
)
Array
(
    [0] => 0
    [1] => 3
    [2] => 4
)
Array
(
    [0] => color
    [1] => size
)

See Also

  • array_values() - Return all the values of an array
  • array_combine() - Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its values
  • array_key_exists() - Checks if the given key or index exists in the array
  • array_search() - Searches the array for a given value and returns the first corresponding key if successful
Read article
PHP / array_map — DevDocs

array_map

(PHP 4 >= 4.0.6, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

array_map Applies the callback to the elements of the given arrays

Description

array_map(?callable $callback, array $array, array ...$arrays): array

array_map() returns an array containing the results of applying the callback to the corresponding value of array (and arrays if more arrays are provided) used as arguments for the callback. The number of parameters that the callback function accepts should match the number of arrays passed to array_map() . Excess input arrays are ignored. An ArgumentCountError is thrown if an insufficient number of arguments is provided.

Parameters

callback

A callable to run for each element in each array.

null can be passed as a value to callback to perform a zip operation on multiple arrays. If only array is provided, array_map() will return the input array.

array

An array to run through the callback function.

arrays

Supplementary variable list of array arguments to run through the callback function.

Return Values

Returns an array containing the results of applying the callback function to the corresponding value of array (and arrays if more arrays are provided) used as arguments for the callback.

The returned array will preserve the keys of the array argument if and only if exactly one array is passed. If more than one array is passed, the returned array will have sequential integer keys.

Changelog

Version Description
8.0.0 If callback expects a parameter to be passed by reference, this function will now emit an E_WARNING .

Examples

Example #1 array_map() example

<?php
function cube($n)
{
    return ($n * $n * $n);
}

$a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
$b = array_map('cube', $a);
print_r($b);
?>

This makes $b have:

Array
(
    [0] => 1
    [1] => 8
    [2] => 27
    [3] => 64
    [4] => 125
)

Example #2 array_map() using a lambda function

<?php
$func = function(int $value): int {
    return $value * 2;
};

print_r(array_map($func, range(1, 5)));

// Or as of PHP 7.4.0:

print_r(array_map(fn($value): int => $value * 2, range(1, 5)));

?>
Array
(
    [0] => 2
    [1] => 4
    [2] => 6
    [3] => 8
    [4] => 10
)

Example #3 array_map() - using more arrays

<?php
function show_Spanish(int $n, string $m): string
{
    return "The number {$n} is called {$m} in Spanish";
}

function map_Spanish(int $n, string $m): array
{
    return [$n => $m];
}

$a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
$b = ['uno', 'dos', 'tres', 'cuatro', 'cinco'];

$c = array_map('show_Spanish', $a, $b);
print_r($c);

$d = array_map('map_Spanish', $a , $b);
print_r($d);
?>

The above example will output:

// printout of $c
Array
(
    [0] => The number 1 is called uno in Spanish
    [1] => The number 2 is called dos in Spanish
    [2] => The number 3 is called tres in Spanish
    [3] => The number 4 is called cuatro in Spanish
    [4] => The number 5 is called cinco in Spanish
)

// printout of $d
Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [1] => uno
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [2] => dos
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [3] => tres
        )

    [3] => Array
        (
            [4] => cuatro
        )

    [4] => Array
        (
            [5] => cinco
        )

)

Usually when using two or more arrays, they should be of equal length because the callback function is applied in parallel to the corresponding elements. If the arrays are of unequal length, shorter ones will be extended with empty elements to match the length of the longest.

An interesting use of this function is to construct an array of arrays, which can be easily performed by using null as the name of the callback function

Example #4 Performing a zip operation of arrays

<?php
$a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
$b = ['one', 'two', 'three', 'four', 'five'];
$c = ['uno', 'dos', 'tres', 'cuatro', 'cinco'];

$d = array_map(null, $a, $b, $c);
print_r($d);
?>

The above example will output:

Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [0] => 1
            [1] => one
            [2] => uno
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [0] => 2
            [1] => two
            [2] => dos
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [0] => 3
            [1] => three
            [2] => tres
        )

    [3] => Array
        (
            [0] => 4
            [1] => four
            [2] => cuatro
        )

    [4] => Array
        (
            [0] => 5
            [1] => five
            [2] => cinco
        )

)

Example #5 null callback with only array

<?php
$array = [1, 2, 3];
var_dump(array_map(null, $array));
?>

The above example will output:

array(3) {
  [0]=>
  int(1)
  [1]=>
  int(2)
  [2]=>
  int(3)
}

Example #6 array_map() - with string keys

<?php
$arr = ['stringkey' => 'value'];
function cb1($a) {
    return [$a];
}
function cb2($a, $b) {
    return [$a, $b];
}
var_dump(array_map('cb1', $arr));
var_dump(array_map('cb2', $arr, $arr));
var_dump(array_map(null,  $arr));
var_dump(array_map(null, $arr, $arr));
?>

The above example will output:

array(1) {
  ["stringkey"]=>
  array(1) {
    [0]=>
    string(5) "value"
  }
}
array(1) {
  [0]=>
  array(2) {
    [0]=>
    string(5) "value"
    [1]=>
    string(5) "value"
  }
}
array(1) {
  ["stringkey"]=>
  string(5) "value"
}
array(1) {
  [0]=>
  array(2) {
    [0]=>
    string(5) "value"
    [1]=>
    string(5) "value"
  }
}

Example #7 array_map() - associative arrays

While array_map() does not directly support using the array key as an input, that may be simulated using array_keys() .

<?php
$arr = [
    'v1' => 'First release',
    'v2' => 'Second release',
    'v3' => 'Third release',
];

// Note: Before 7.4.0, use the longer syntax for anonymous functions instead.
$callback = fn(string $k, string $v): string => "$k was the $v";

$result = array_map($callback, array_keys($arr), array_values($arr));

var_dump($result);
?>

The above example will output:

array(3) {
  [0]=>
  string(24) "v1 was the First release"
  [1]=>
  string(25) "v2 was the Second release"
  [2]=>
  string(24) "v3 was the Third release"
}

See Also

  • array_filter() - Filters elements of an array using a callback function
  • array_reduce() - Iteratively reduce the array to a single value using a callback function
  • array_walk() - Apply a user supplied function to every member of an array
Read article
PHP / array_merge — DevDocs

array_merge

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

array_merge Merge one or more arrays

Description

array_merge(array ...$arrays): array

Merges the elements of one or more arrays together so that the values of one are appended to the end of the previous one. It returns the resulting array.

If the input arrays have the same string keys, then the later value for that key will overwrite the previous one. If, however, the arrays contain numeric keys, the later value will not overwrite the original value, but will be appended.

Values in the input arrays with numeric keys will be renumbered with incrementing keys starting from zero in the result array.

Parameters

arrays

Variable list of arrays to merge.

Return Values

Returns the resulting array. If called without any arguments, returns an empty array .

Changelog

Version Description
7.4.0 This function can now be called without any parameter. Formerly, at least one parameter has been required.

Examples

Example #1 array_merge() example

<?php
$array1 = array("color" => "red", 2, 4);
$array2 = array("a", "b", "color" => "green", "shape" => "trapezoid", 4);
$result = array_merge($array1, $array2);
print_r($result);
?>

The above example will output:

Array
(
    [color] => green
    [0] => 2
    [1] => 4
    [2] => a
    [3] => b
    [shape] => trapezoid
    [4] => 4
)

Example #2 Simple array_merge() example

<?php
$array1 = array();
$array2 = array(1 => "data");
$result = array_merge($array1, $array2);
?>

Don't forget that numeric keys will be renumbered!

Array
(
    [0] => data
)

If you want to append array elements from the second array to the first array while not overwriting the elements from the first array and not re-indexing, use the + array union operator:

<?php
$array1 = array(0 => 'zero_a', 2 => 'two_a', 3 => 'three_a');
$array2 = array(1 => 'one_b', 3 => 'three_b', 4 => 'four_b');
$result = $array1 + $array2;
var_dump($result);
?>

The keys from the first array will be preserved. If an array key exists in both arrays, then the element from the first array will be used and the matching key's element from the second array will be ignored.

array(5) {
  [0]=>
  string(6) "zero_a"
  [2]=>
  string(5) "two_a"
  [3]=>
  string(7) "three_a"
  [1]=>
  string(5) "one_b"
  [4]=>
  string(6) "four_b"
}

Example #3 array_merge() with non-array types

<?php
$beginning = 'foo';
$end = array(1 => 'bar');
$result = array_merge((array)$beginning, (array)$end);
print_r($result);
?>

The above example will output:

    Array
    (
        [0] => foo
        [1] => bar
    )

See Also

  • array_merge_recursive() - Merge one or more arrays recursively
  • array_replace() - Replaces elements from passed arrays into the first array
  • array_combine() - Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its values
  • array operators
Read article
PHP / array_merge_recursive — DevDocs

array_merge_recursive

(PHP 4 >= 4.0.1, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

array_merge_recursive Merge one or more arrays recursively

Description

array_merge_recursive(array ...$arrays): array

array_merge_recursive() merges the elements of one or more arrays together so that the values of one are appended to the end of the previous one. It returns the resulting array.

If the input arrays have the same string keys, then the values for these keys are merged together into an array, and this is done recursively, so that if one of the values is an array itself, the function will merge it with a corresponding entry in another array too. If, however, the arrays have the same numeric key, the later value will not overwrite the original value, but will be appended.

Parameters

arrays

Variable list of arrays to recursively merge.

Return Values

An array of values resulted from merging the arguments together. If called without any arguments, returns an empty array .

Changelog

Version Description
7.4.0 This function can now be called without any parameter. Formerly, at least one parameter has been required.

Examples

Example #1 array_merge_recursive() example

<?php
$ar1 = array("color" => array("favorite" => "red"), 5);
$ar2 = array(10, "color" => array("favorite" => "green", "blue"));
$result = array_merge_recursive($ar1, $ar2);
print_r($result);
?>

The above example will output:

Array
(
    [color] => Array
        (
            [favorite] => Array
                (
                    [0] => red
                    [1] => green
                )

            [0] => blue
        )

    [0] => 5
    [1] => 10
)

See Also

  • array_merge() - Merge one or more arrays
  • array_replace_recursive() - Replaces elements from passed arrays into the first array recursively
Read article

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