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Typechecking With PropTypes – React

Typechecking With PropTypes


Note:


React.PropTypes has moved into a different package since React v15.5. Please use the prop-types library instead.


We provide a codemod script to automate the conversion.



As your app grows, you can catch a lot of bugs with typechecking. For some applications, you can use JavaScript extensions like Flow or TypeScript to typecheck your whole application. But even if you don’t use those, React has some built-in typechecking abilities. To run typechecking on the props for a component, you can assign the special propTypes property:


import PropTypes from 'prop-types';

class Greeting extends React.Component {
render() {
return (
<h1>Hello, {this.props.name}</h1>
);
}
}

Greeting.propTypes = {
name: PropTypes.string
};

In this example, we are using a class component, but the same functionality could also be applied to function components, or components created by React.memo or React.forwardRef .


PropTypes exports a range of validators that can be used to make sure the data you receive is valid. In this example, we’re using PropTypes.string . When an invalid value is provided for a prop, a warning will be shown in the JavaScript console. For performance reasons, propTypes is only checked in development mode.


PropTypes


Here is an example documenting the different validators provided:


import PropTypes from 'prop-types';

MyComponent.propTypes = {
// You can declare that a prop is a specific JS type. By default, these
// are all optional.
optionalArray: PropTypes.array,
optionalBool: PropTypes.bool,
optionalFunc: PropTypes.func,
optionalNumber: PropTypes.number,
optionalObject: PropTypes.object,
optionalString: PropTypes.string,
optionalSymbol: PropTypes.symbol,

// Anything that can be rendered: numbers, strings, elements or an array
// (or fragment) containing these types.
optionalNode: PropTypes.node,

// A React element.
optionalElement: PropTypes.element,

// A React element type (ie. MyComponent).
optionalElementType: PropTypes.elementType,

// You can also declare that a prop is an instance of a class. This uses
// JS's instanceof operator.
optionalMessage: PropTypes.instanceOf(Message),

// You can ensure that your prop is limited to specific values by treating
// it as an enum.
optionalEnum: PropTypes.oneOf(['News', 'Photos']),

// An object that could be one of many types
optionalUnion: PropTypes.oneOfType([
PropTypes.string,
PropTypes.number,
PropTypes.instanceOf(Message)
]),

// An array of a certain type
optionalArrayOf: PropTypes.arrayOf(PropTypes.number),

// An object with property values of a certain type
optionalObjectOf: PropTypes.objectOf(PropTypes.number),

// An object taking on a particular shape
optionalObjectWithShape: PropTypes.shape({
color: PropTypes.string,
fontSize: PropTypes.number
}),

// An object with warnings on extra properties
optionalObjectWithStrictShape: PropTypes.exact({
name: PropTypes.string,
quantity: PropTypes.number
}),

// You can chain any of the above with `isRequired` to make sure a warning
// is shown if the prop isn't provided.
requiredFunc: PropTypes.func.isRequired,

// A required value of any data type
requiredAny: PropTypes.any.isRequired,

// You can also specify a custom validator. It should return an Error
// object if the validation fails. Don't `console.warn` or throw, as this
// won't work inside `oneOfType`.
customProp: function(props, propName, componentName) {
if (!/matchme/.test(props[propName])) {
return new Error(
'Invalid prop `' + propName + '` supplied to' +
' `' + componentName + '`. Validation failed.'
);
}
},

// You can also supply a custom validator to `arrayOf` and `objectOf`.
// It should return an Error object if the validation fails. The validator
// will be called for each key in the array or object. The first two
// arguments of the validator are the array or object itself, and the
// current item's key.
customArrayProp: PropTypes.arrayOf(function(propValue, key, componentName, location, propFullName) {
if (!/matchme/.test(propValue[key])) {
return new Error(
'Invalid prop `' + propFullName + '` supplied to' +
' `' + componentName + '`. Validation failed.'
);
}
})
};

Requiring Single Child


With PropTypes.element you can specify that only a single child can be passed to a component as children.


import PropTypes from 'prop-types';

class MyComponent extends React.Component {
render() {
// This must be exactly one element or it will warn.
const children = this.props.children;
return (
<div>
{children}
</div>
);
}
}

MyComponent.propTypes = {
children: PropTypes.element.isRequired
};

Default Prop Values


You can define default values for your props by assigning to the special defaultProps property:


class Greeting extends React.Component {
render() {
return (
<h1>Hello, {this.props.name}</h1>
);
}
}

// Specifies the default values for props:
Greeting.defaultProps = {
name: 'Stranger'
};

// Renders "Hello, Stranger":
const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(document.getElementById('example'));
root.render(<Greeting />);

Since ES2022 you can also declare defaultProps as static property within a React component class. For more information, see the class public static fields. This modern syntax will require a compilation step to work within older browsers.


class Greeting extends React.Component {
static defaultProps = {
name: 'stranger'
}

render() {
return (
<div>Hello, {this.props.name}</div>
)
}
}

The defaultProps will be used to ensure that this.props.name will have a value if it was not specified by the parent component. The propTypes typechecking happens after defaultProps are resolved, so typechecking will also apply to the defaultProps .


Function Components


If you are using function components in your regular development, you may want to make some small changes to allow PropTypes to be properly applied.


Let’s say you have a component like this:


export default function HelloWorldComponent({ name }) {
return (
<div>Hello, {name}</div>
)
}

To add PropTypes, you may want to declare the component in a separate function before exporting, like this:


function HelloWorldComponent({ name }) {
return (
<div>Hello, {name}</div>
)
}

export default HelloWorldComponent

Then, you can add PropTypes directly to the HelloWorldComponent :


import PropTypes from 'prop-types'

function HelloWorldComponent({ name }) {
return (
<div>Hello, {name}</div>
)
}

HelloWorldComponent.propTypes = {
name: PropTypes.string
}

export default HelloWorldComponent
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Uncontrolled Components – React

Uncontrolled Components

In most cases, we recommend using controlled components to implement forms. In a controlled component, form data is handled by a React component. The alternative is uncontrolled components, where form data is handled by the DOM itself.


To write an uncontrolled component, instead of writing an event handler for every state update, you can use a ref to get form values from the DOM.


For example, this code accepts a single name in an uncontrolled component:


class NameForm extends React.Component {
constructor(props) {
super(props);
this.handleSubmit = this.handleSubmit.bind(this);
this.input = React.createRef(); }

handleSubmit(event) {
alert('A name was submitted: ' + this.input.current.value); event.preventDefault();
}

render() {
return (
<form onSubmit={this.handleSubmit}>
<label>
Name:
<input type="text" ref={this.input} /> </label>
<input type="submit" value="Submit" />
</form>
);
}
}

Try it on CodePen


Since an uncontrolled component keeps the source of truth in the DOM, it is sometimes easier to integrate React and non-React code when using uncontrolled components. It can also be slightly less code if you want to be quick and dirty. Otherwise, you should usually use controlled components.


If it’s still not clear which type of component you should use for a particular situation, you might find this article on controlled versus uncontrolled inputs to be helpful.


Default Values


In the React rendering lifecycle, the value attribute on form elements will override the value in the DOM. With an uncontrolled component, you often want React to specify the initial value, but leave subsequent updates uncontrolled. To handle this case, you can specify a defaultValue attribute instead of value . Changing the value of defaultValue attribute after a component has mounted will not cause any update of the value in the DOM.


render() {
return (
<form onSubmit={this.handleSubmit}>
<label>
Name:
<input
defaultValue="Bob" type="text"
ref={this.input} />

</label>
<input type="submit" value="Submit" />
</form>
);
}

Likewise, <input type="checkbox"> and <input type="radio"> support defaultChecked , and <select> and <textarea> supports defaultValue .


The file input Tag


In HTML, an <input type="file"> lets the user choose one or more files from their device storage to be uploaded to a server or manipulated by JavaScript via the File API.


<input type="file" />

In React, an <input type="file" /> is always an uncontrolled component because its value can only be set by a user, and not programmatically.


You should use the File API to interact with the files. The following example shows how to create a ref to the DOM node to access file(s) in a submit handler:



class FileInput extends React.Component {
constructor(props) {
super(props);
this.handleSubmit = this.handleSubmit.bind(this);
this.fileInput = React.createRef(); }
handleSubmit(event) {
event.preventDefault();
alert(
`Selected file - ${this.fileInput.current.files[0].name}` );
}

render() {
return (
<form onSubmit={this.handleSubmit}>
<label>
Upload file:
<input type="file" ref={this.fileInput} /> </label>
<br />
<button type="submit">Submit</button>
</form>
);
}
}

const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(
document.getElementById('root')
);
root.render(<FileInput />);


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Web Components – React

Web Components

React and Web Components are built to solve different problems. Web Components provide strong encapsulation for reusable components, while React provides a declarative library that keeps the DOM in sync with your data. The two goals are complementary. As a developer, you are free to use React in your Web Components, or to use Web Components in React, or both.


Most people who use React don’t use Web Components, but you may want to, especially if you are using third-party UI components that are written using Web Components.


Using Web Components in React


class HelloMessage extends React.Component {
render() {
return <div>Hello <x-search>{this.props.name}</x-search>!</div>;
}
}


Note:


Web Components often expose an imperative API. For instance, a video Web Component might expose play() and pause() functions. To access the imperative APIs of a Web Component, you will need to use a ref to interact with the DOM node directly. If you are using third-party Web Components, the best solution is to write a React component that behaves as a wrapper for your Web Component.


Events emitted by a Web Component may not properly propagate through a React render tree.
You will need to manually attach event handlers to handle these events within your React components.



One common confusion is that Web Components use “class” instead of “className”.


function BrickFlipbox() {
return (
<brick-flipbox class="demo">
<div>front</div>
<div>back</div>
</brick-flipbox>
);
}

Using React in your Web Components


class XSearch extends HTMLElement {
connectedCallback() {
const mountPoint = document.createElement('span');
this.attachShadow({ mode: 'open' }).appendChild(mountPoint);

const name = this.getAttribute('name');
const url = 'https://www.google.com/search?q=' + encodeURIComponent(name);
const root = ReactDOM.createRoot(mountPoint);
root.render(<a href={url}>{name}</a>);
}
}
customElements.define('x-search', XSearch);


Note:


This code will not work if you transform classes with Babel. See this issue for the discussion.
Include the custom-elements-es5-adapter before you load your web components to fix this issue.


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React Top-Level API – React

React Top-Level API

React is the entry point to the React library. If you load React from a <script> tag, these top-level APIs are available on the React global. If you use ES6 with npm, you can write import React from 'react' . If you use ES5 with npm, you can write var React = require('react') .


Overview


Components


React components let you split the UI into independent, reusable pieces, and think about each piece in isolation. React components can be defined by subclassing React.Component or React.PureComponent .



  • React.Component

  • React.PureComponent


If you don’t use ES6 classes, you may use the create-react-class module instead. See Using React without ES6 for more information.


React components can also be defined as functions which can be wrapped:



  • React.memo


Creating React Elements


We recommend using JSX to describe what your UI should look like. Each JSX element is just syntactic sugar for calling React.createElement() . You will not typically invoke the following methods directly if you are using JSX.



  • createElement()

  • createFactory()


See Using React without JSX for more information.


Transforming Elements


React provides several APIs for manipulating elements:



  • cloneElement()

  • isValidElement()

  • React.Children


Fragments


React also provides a component for rendering multiple elements without a wrapper.



  • React.Fragment


Refs



  • React.createRef

  • React.forwardRef


Suspense


Suspense lets components “wait” for something before rendering. Today, Suspense only supports one use case: loading components dynamically with React.lazy . In the future, it will support other use cases like data fetching.



  • React.lazy

  • React.Suspense


Transitions


Transitions are a new concurrent feature introduced in React 18. They allow you to mark updates as transitions, which tells React that they can be interrupted and avoid going back to Suspense fallbacks for already visible content.



  • React.startTransition

  • React.useTransition


Hooks


Hooks are a new addition in React 16.8. They let you use state and other React features without writing a class. Hooks have a dedicated docs section and a separate API reference:




  • Basic Hooks



    • useState

    • useEffect

    • useContext




  • Additional Hooks



    • useReducer

    • useCallback

    • useMemo

    • useRef

    • useImperativeHandle

    • useLayoutEffect

    • useDebugValue

    • useDeferredValue

    • useTransition

    • useId




  • Library Hooks



    • useSyncExternalStore

    • useInsertionEffect






Reference


React.Component


React.Component is the base class for React components when they are defined using ES6 classes:


class Greeting extends React.Component {
render() {
return <h1>Hello, {this.props.name}</h1>;
}
}

See the React.Component API Reference for a list of methods and properties related to the base React.Component class.




React.PureComponent


React.PureComponent is similar to React.Component . The difference between them is that React.Component doesn’t implement shouldComponentUpdate() , but React.PureComponent implements it with a shallow prop and state comparison.


If your React component’s render() function renders the same result given the same props and state, you can use React.PureComponent for a performance boost in some cases.



Note


React.PureComponent ’s shouldComponentUpdate() only shallowly compares the objects. If these contain complex data structures, it may produce false-negatives for deeper differences. Only extend PureComponent when you expect to have simple props and state, or use forceUpdate() when you know deep data structures have changed. Or, consider using immutable objects to facilitate fast comparisons of nested data.


Furthermore, React.PureComponent ’s shouldComponentUpdate() skips prop updates for the whole component subtree. Make sure all the children components are also “pure”.





React.memo


const MyComponent = React.memo(function MyComponent(props) {
/* render using props */
});

React.memo is a higher order component.


If your component renders the same result given the same props, you can wrap it in a call to React.memo for a performance boost in some cases by memoizing the result. This means that React will skip rendering the component, and reuse the last rendered result.


React.memo only checks for prop changes. If your function component wrapped in React.memo has a useState , useReducer or useContext Hook in its implementation, it will still rerender when state or context change.


By default it will only shallowly compare complex objects in the props object. If you want control over the comparison, you can also provide a custom comparison function as the second argument.


function MyComponent(props) {
/* render using props */
}
function areEqual(prevProps, nextProps) {
/*
return true if passing nextProps to render would return
the same result as passing prevProps to render,
otherwise return false
*/

}
export default React.memo(MyComponent, areEqual);

This method only exists as a performance optimization. Do not rely on it to “prevent” a render, as this can lead to bugs.



Note


Unlike the shouldComponentUpdate() method on class components, the areEqual function returns true if the props are equal and false if the props are not equal. This is the inverse from shouldComponentUpdate .





createElement()


React.createElement(
type,
[props],
[...children]
)

Create and return a new React element of the given type. The type argument can be either a tag name string (such as 'div' or 'span' ), a React component type (a class or a function), or a React fragment type.


Code written with JSX will be converted to use React.createElement() . You will not typically invoke React.createElement() directly if you are using JSX. See React Without JSX to learn more.




cloneElement()


React.cloneElement(
element,
[config],
[...children]
)

Clone and return a new React element using element as the starting point. config should contain all new props, key , or ref . The resulting element will have the original element’s props with the new props merged in shallowly. New children will replace existing children. key and ref from the original element will be preserved if no key and ref present in the config .


React.cloneElement() is almost equivalent to:


<element.type {...element.props} {...props}>{children}</element.type>

However, it also preserves ref s. This means that if you get a child with a ref on it, you won’t accidentally steal it from your ancestor. You will get the same ref attached to your new element. The new ref or key will replace old ones if present.


This API was introduced as a replacement of the deprecated React.addons.cloneWithProps() .




createFactory()


React.createFactory(type)

Return a function that produces React elements of a given type. Like React.createElement() , the type argument can be either a tag name string (such as 'div' or 'span' ), a React component type (a class or a function), or a React fragment type.


This helper is considered legacy, and we encourage you to either use JSX or use React.createElement() directly instead.


You will not typically invoke React.createFactory() directly if you are using JSX. See React Without JSX to learn more.




isValidElement()


React.isValidElement(object)

Verifies the object is a React element. Returns true or false .




React.Children


React.Children provides utilities for dealing with the this.props.children opaque data structure.


React.Children.map


React.Children.map(children, function[(thisArg)])

Invokes a function on every immediate child contained within children with this set to thisArg . If children is an array it will be traversed and the function will be called for each child in the array. If children is null or undefined , this method will return null or undefined rather than an array.



Note


If children is a Fragment it will be treated as a single child and not traversed.



React.Children.forEach


React.Children.forEach(children, function[(thisArg)])

Like React.Children.map() but does not return an array.


React.Children.count


React.Children.count(children)

Returns the total number of components in children , equal to the number of times that a callback passed to map or forEach would be invoked.


React.Children.only


React.Children.only(children)

Verifies that children has only one child (a React element) and returns it. Otherwise this method throws an error.



Note:


React.Children.only() does not accept the return value of React.Children.map() because it is an array rather than a React element.



React.Children.toArray


React.Children.toArray(children)

Returns the children opaque data structure as a flat array with keys assigned to each child. Useful if you want to manipulate collections of children in your render methods, especially if you want to reorder or slice this.props.children before passing it down.



Note:


React.Children.toArray() changes keys to preserve the semantics of nested arrays when flattening lists of children. That is, toArray prefixes each key in the returned array so that each element’s key is scoped to the input array containing it.





React.Fragment


The React.Fragment component lets you return multiple elements in a render() method without creating an additional DOM element:


render() {
return (
<React.Fragment>
Some text.
<h2>A heading</h2>
</React.Fragment>
);
}

You can also use it with the shorthand <></> syntax. For more information, see React v16.2.0: Improved Support for Fragments.


React.createRef


React.createRef creates a ref that can be attached to React elements via the ref attribute.


class MyComponent extends React.Component {
constructor(props) {
super(props);

this.inputRef = React.createRef(); }

render() {
return <input type="text" ref={this.inputRef} />; }

componentDidMount() {
this.inputRef.current.focus(); }
}


React.forwardRef


React.forwardRef creates a React component that forwards the ref attribute it receives to another component below in the tree. This technique is not very common but is particularly useful in two scenarios:



  • Forwarding refs to DOM components

  • Forwarding refs in higher-order-components


React.forwardRef accepts a rendering function as an argument. React will call this function with props and ref as two arguments. This function should return a React node.



const FancyButton = React.forwardRef((props, ref) => (  <button ref={ref} className="FancyButton">    {props.children}
</button>
));

// You can now get a ref directly to the DOM button:
const ref = React.createRef();
<FancyButton ref={ref}>Click me!</FancyButton>;


In the above example, React passes a ref given to <FancyButton ref={ref}> element as a second argument to the rendering function inside the React.forwardRef call. This rendering function passes the ref to the <button ref={ref}> element.


As a result, after React attaches the ref, ref.current will point directly to the <button> DOM element instance.


For more information, see forwarding refs.


React.lazy


React.lazy() lets you define a component that is loaded dynamically. This helps reduce the bundle size to delay loading components that aren’t used during the initial render.


You can learn how to use it from our code splitting documentation. You might also want to check out this article explaining how to use it in more detail.


// This component is loaded dynamically
const SomeComponent = React.lazy(() => import('./SomeComponent'));

Note that rendering lazy components requires that there’s a <React.Suspense> component higher in the rendering tree. This is how you specify a loading indicator.


React.Suspense


React.Suspense lets you specify the loading indicator in case some components in the tree below it are not yet ready to render. In the future we plan to let Suspense handle more scenarios such as data fetching. You can read about this in our roadmap.


Today, lazy loading components is the only use case supported by <React.Suspense> :


// This component is loaded dynamically
const OtherComponent = React.lazy(() => import('./OtherComponent'));

function MyComponent() {
return (
// Displays <Spinner> until OtherComponent loads
<React.Suspense fallback={<Spinner />}>
<div>
<OtherComponent />
</div>
</React.Suspense>
);
}

It is documented in our code splitting guide. Note that lazy components can be deep inside the Suspense tree — it doesn’t have to wrap every one of them. The best practice is to place <Suspense> where you want to see a loading indicator, but to use lazy() wherever you want to do code splitting.



Note


For content that is already shown to the user, switching back to a loading indicator can be disorienting. It is sometimes better to show the “old” UI while the new UI is being prepared. To do this, you can use the new transition APIs startTransition and useTransition to mark updates as transitions and avoid unexpected fallbacks.



React.Suspense in Server Side Rendering


During server side rendering Suspense Boundaries allow you to flush your application in smaller chunks by suspending.
When a component suspends we schedule a low priority task to render the closest Suspense boundary’s fallback. If the component unsuspends before we flush the fallback then we send down the actual content and throw away the fallback.


React.Suspense during hydration


Suspense boundaries depend on their parent boundaries being hydrated before they can hydrate, but they can hydrate independently from sibling boundaries. Events on a boundary before it is hydrated will cause the boundary to hydrate at a higher priority than neighboring boundaries. Read more


React.startTransition


React.startTransition(callback)

React.startTransition lets you mark updates inside the provided callback as transitions. This method is designed to be used when React.useTransition is not available.



Note:


Updates in a transition yield to more urgent updates such as clicks.


Updates in a transition will not show a fallback for re-suspended content, allowing the user to continue interacting while rendering the update.


React.startTransition does not provide an isPending flag. To track the pending status of a transition see React.useTransition .


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React.Component – React

React.Component

This page contains a detailed API reference for the React component class definition. It assumes you’re familiar with fundamental React concepts, such as Components and Props, as well as State and Lifecycle. If you’re not, read them first.


Overview


React lets you define components as classes or functions. Components defined as classes currently provide more features which are described in detail on this page. To define a React component class, you need to extend React.Component :


class Welcome extends React.Component {
render() {
return <h1>Hello, {this.props.name}</h1>;
}
}

The only method you must define in a React.Component subclass is called render() . All the other methods described on this page are optional.


We strongly recommend against creating your own base component classes. In React components, code reuse is primarily achieved through composition rather than inheritance.



Note:


React doesn’t force you to use the ES6 class syntax. If you prefer to avoid it, you may use the create-react-class module or a similar custom abstraction instead. Take a look at Using React without ES6 to learn more.



The Component Lifecycle


Each component has several “lifecycle methods” that you can override to run code at particular times in the process. You can use this lifecycle diagram as a cheat sheet. In the list below, commonly used lifecycle methods are marked as bold . The rest of them exist for relatively rare use cases.


Mounting


These methods are called in the following order when an instance of a component is being created and inserted into the DOM:



  • constructor()

  • static getDerivedStateFromProps()

  • render()

  • componentDidMount()



Note:


This method is considered legacy and you should avoid it in new code:



  • UNSAFE_componentWillMount()



Updating


An update can be caused by changes to props or state. These methods are called in the following order when a component is being re-rendered:



  • static getDerivedStateFromProps()

  • shouldComponentUpdate()

  • render()

  • getSnapshotBeforeUpdate()

  • componentDidUpdate()



Note:


These methods are considered legacy and you should avoid them in new code:



  • UNSAFE_componentWillUpdate()

  • UNSAFE_componentWillReceiveProps()



Unmounting


This method is called when a component is being removed from the DOM:



  • componentWillUnmount()


Error Handling


These methods are called when there is an error during rendering, in a lifecycle method, or in the constructor of any child component.



  • static getDerivedStateFromError()

  • componentDidCatch()


Other APIs


Each component also provides some other APIs:



  • setState()

  • forceUpdate()


Class Properties



  • defaultProps

  • displayName


Instance Properties



  • props

  • state




Reference


Commonly Used Lifecycle Methods


The methods in this section cover the vast majority of use cases you’ll encounter creating React components. For a visual reference, check out this lifecycle diagram.


render()


render()

The render() method is the only required method in a class component.


When called, it should examine this.props and this.state and return one of the following types:



  • React elements. Typically created via JSX. For example, <div /> and <MyComponent /> are React elements that instruct React to render a DOM node, or another user-defined component, respectively.

  • Arrays and fragments. Let you return multiple elements from render. See the documentation on fragments for more details.

  • Portals . Let you render children into a different DOM subtree. See the documentation on portals for more details.

  • String and numbers. These are rendered as text nodes in the DOM.

  • Booleans or null or undefined . Render nothing. (Mostly exists to support return test && <Child /> pattern, where test is boolean).


The render() function should be pure, meaning that it does not modify component state, it returns the same result each time it’s invoked, and it does not directly interact with the browser.


If you need to interact with the browser, perform your work in componentDidMount() or the other lifecycle methods instead. Keeping render() pure makes components easier to think about.



Note


render() will not be invoked if shouldComponentUpdate() returns false.





constructor()


constructor(props)

If you don’t initialize state and you don’t bind methods, you don’t need to implement a constructor for your React component.


The constructor for a React component is called before it is mounted. When implementing the constructor for a React.Component subclass, you should call super(props) before any other statement. Otherwise, this.props will be undefined in the constructor, which can lead to bugs.


Typically, in React constructors are only used for two purposes:



  • Initializing local state by assigning an object to this.state .

  • Binding event handler methods to an instance.


You should not call setState() in the constructor() . Instead, if your component needs to use local state, assign the initial state to this.state directly in the constructor:


constructor(props) {
super(props);
// Don't call this.setState() here!
this.state = { counter: 0 };
this.handleClick = this.handleClick.bind(this);
}

Constructor is the only place where you should assign this.state directly. In all other methods, you need to use this.setState() instead.


Avoid introducing any side-effects or subscriptions in the constructor. For those use cases, use componentDidMount() instead.



Note


Avoid copying props into state! This is a common mistake:


constructor(props) {
super(props);
// Don't do this!
this.state = { color: props.color };
}

The problem is that it’s both unnecessary (you can use this.props.color directly instead), and creates bugs (updates to the color prop won’t be reflected in the state).


Only use this pattern if you intentionally want to ignore prop updates. In that case, it makes sense to rename the prop to be called initialColor or defaultColor . You can then force a component to “reset” its internal state by changing its key when necessary.


Read our blog post on avoiding derived state to learn about what to do if you think you need some state to depend on the props.





componentDidMount()


componentDidMount()

componentDidMount() is invoked immediately after a component is mounted (inserted into the tree). Initialization that requires DOM nodes should go here. If you need to load data from a remote endpoint, this is a good place to instantiate the network request.


This method is a good place to set up any subscriptions. If you do that, don’t forget to unsubscribe in componentWillUnmount() .


You may call setState() immediately in componentDidMount() . It will trigger an extra rendering, but it will happen before the browser updates the screen. This guarantees that even though the render() will be called twice in this case, the user won’t see the intermediate state. Use this pattern with caution because it often causes performance issues. In most cases, you should be able to assign the initial state in the constructor() instead. It can, however, be necessary for cases like modals and tooltips when you need to measure a DOM node before rendering something that depends on its size or position.




componentDidUpdate()


componentDidUpdate(prevProps, prevState, snapshot)

componentDidUpdate() is invoked immediately after updating occurs. This method is not called for the initial render.


Use this as an opportunity to operate on the DOM when the component has been updated. This is also a good place to do network requests as long as you compare the current props to previous props (e.g. a network request may not be necessary if the props have not changed).


componentDidUpdate(prevProps) {
// Typical usage (don't forget to compare props):
if (this.props.userID !== prevProps.userID) {
this.fetchData(this.props.userID);
}
}

You may call setState() immediately in componentDidUpdate() but note that it must be wrapped in a condition like in the example above, or you’ll cause an infinite loop. It would also cause an extra re-rendering which, while not visible to the user, can affect the component performance. If you’re trying to “mirror” some state to a prop coming from above, consider using the prop directly instead. Read more about why copying props into state causes bugs.


If your component implements the getSnapshotBeforeUpdate() lifecycle (which is rare), the value it returns will be passed as a third “snapshot” parameter to componentDidUpdate() . Otherwise this parameter will be undefined.



Note


componentDidUpdate() will not be invoked if shouldComponentUpdate() returns false.





componentWillUnmount()


componentWillUnmount()

componentWillUnmount() is invoked immediately before a component is unmounted and destroyed. Perform any necessary cleanup in this method, such as invalidating timers, canceling network requests, or cleaning up any subscriptions that were created in componentDidMount() .


You should not call setState() in componentWillUnmount() because the component will never be re-rendered. Once a component instance is unmounted, it will never be mounted again.




Rarely Used Lifecycle Methods


The methods in this section correspond to uncommon use cases. They’re handy once in a while, but most of your components probably don’t need any of them. You can see most of the methods below on this lifecycle diagram if you click the “Show less common lifecycles” checkbox at the top of it.


shouldComponentUpdate()


shouldComponentUpdate(nextProps, nextState)

Use shouldComponentUpdate() to let React know if a component’s output is not affected by the current change in state or props. The default behavior is to re-render on every state change, and in the vast majority of cases you should rely on the default behavior.


shouldComponentUpdate() is invoked before rendering when new props or state are being received. Defaults to true . This method is not called for the initial render or when forceUpdate() is used.


This method only exists as a performance optimization. Do not rely on it to “prevent” a rendering, as this can lead to bugs. Consider using the built-in PureComponent instead of writing shouldComponentUpdate() by hand. PureComponent performs a shallow comparison of props and state, and reduces the chance that you’ll skip a necessary update.


If you are confident you want to write it by hand, you may compare this.props with nextProps and this.state with nextState and return false to tell React the update can be skipped. Note that returning false does not prevent child components from re-rendering when their state changes.


We do not recommend doing deep equality checks or using JSON.stringify() in shouldComponentUpdate() . It is very inefficient and will harm performance.


Currently, if shouldComponentUpdate() returns false , then UNSAFE_componentWillUpdate() , render() , and componentDidUpdate() will not be invoked. In the future React may treat shouldComponentUpdate() as a hint rather than a strict directive, and returning false may still result in a re-rendering of the component.




static getDerivedStateFromProps()


static getDerivedStateFromProps(props, state)

getDerivedStateFromProps is invoked right before calling the render method, both on the initial mount and on subsequent updates. It should return an object to update the state, or null to update nothing.


This method exists for rare use cases where the state depends on changes in props over time. For example, it might be handy for implementing a <Transition> component that compares its previous and next children to decide which of them to animate in and out.


Deriving state leads to verbose code and makes your components difficult to think about.
Make sure you’re familiar with simpler alternatives:



  • If you need to perform a side effect (for example, data fetching or an animation) in response to a change in props, use componentDidUpdate lifecycle instead.

  • If you want to re-compute some data only when a prop changes , use a memoization helper instead.

  • If you want to “reset” some state when a prop changes , consider either making a component fully controlled or fully uncontrolled with a key instead.


This method doesn’t have access to the component instance. If you’d like, you can reuse some code between getDerivedStateFromProps() and the other class methods by extracting pure functions of the component props and state outside the class definition.


Note that this method is fired on every render, regardless of the cause. This is in contrast to UNSAFE_componentWillReceiveProps , which only fires when the parent causes a re-render and not as a result of a local setState .




getSnapshotBeforeUpdate()


getSnapshotBeforeUpdate(prevProps, prevState)

getSnapshotBeforeUpdate() is invoked right before the most recently rendered output is committed to e.g. the DOM. It enables your component to capture some information from the DOM (e.g. scroll position) before it is potentially changed. Any value returned by this lifecycle method will be passed as a parameter to componentDidUpdate() .


This use case is not common, but it may occur in UIs like a chat thread that need to handle scroll position in a special way.


A snapshot value (or null ) should be returned.


For example:



class ScrollingList extends React.Component {
constructor(props) {
super(props);
this.listRef = React.createRef();
}

getSnapshotBeforeUpdate(prevProps, prevState) {
// Are we adding new items to the list?
// Capture the scroll position so we can adjust scroll later.
if (prevProps.list.length < this.props.list.length) {
const list = this.listRef.current;
return list.scrollHeight - list.scrollTop;
}
return null;
}

componentDidUpdate(prevProps, prevState, snapshot) {
// If we have a snapshot value, we've just added new items.
// Adjust scroll so these new items don't push the old ones out of view.
// (snapshot here is the value returned from getSnapshotBeforeUpdate)
if (snapshot !== null) {
const list = this.listRef.current;
list.scrollTop = list.scrollHeight - snapshot;
}
}

render() {
return (
<div ref={this.listRef}>{/* ...contents... */}</div>
);
}
}


In the above examples, it is important to read the scrollHeight property in getSnapshotBeforeUpdate because there may be delays between “render” phase lifecycles (like render ) and “commit” phase lifecycles (like getSnapshotBeforeUpdate and componentDidUpdate ).




Error boundaries


Error boundaries are React components that catch JavaScript errors anywhere in their child component tree, log those errors, and display a fallback UI instead of the component tree that crashed. Error boundaries catch errors during rendering, in lifecycle methods, and in constructors of the whole tree below them.


A class component becomes an error boundary if it defines either (or both) of the lifecycle methods static getDerivedStateFromError() or componentDidCatch() . Updating state from these lifecycles lets you capture an unhandled JavaScript error in the below tree and display a fallback UI.


Only use error boundaries for recovering from unexpected exceptions; don’t try to use them for control flow.


For more details, see Error Handling in React 16 .



Note


Error boundaries only catch errors in the components below them in the tree. An error boundary can’t catch an error within itself.



static getDerivedStateFromError()


static getDerivedStateFromError(error)

This lifecycle is invoked after an error has been thrown by a descendant component.
It receives the error that was thrown as a parameter and should return a value to update state.


class ErrorBoundary extends React.Component {
constructor(props) {
super(props);
this.state = { hasError: false };
}

static getDerivedStateFromError(error) { // Update state so the next render will show the fallback UI. return { hasError: true }; }
render() {
if (this.state.hasError) { // You can render any custom fallback UI return <h1>Something went wrong.</h1>; }
return this.props.children;
}
}


Note


getDerivedStateFromError() is called during the “render” phase, so side-effects are not permitted.
For those use cases, use componentDidCatch() instead.





componentDidCatch()


componentDidCatch(error, info)

This lifecycle is invoked after an error has been thrown by a descendant component.
It receives two parameters:



  1. error - The error that was thrown.

  2. info - An object with a componentStack key containing information about which component threw the error.


componentDidCatch() is called during the “commit” phase, so side-effects are permitted.
It should be used for things like logging errors:


class ErrorBoundary extends React.Component {
constructor(props) {
super(props);
this.state = { hasError: false };
}

static getDerivedStateFromError(error) {
// Update state so the next render will show the fallback UI.
return { hasError: true };
}

componentDidCatch(error, info) { // Example "componentStack": // in ComponentThatThrows (created by App) // in ErrorBoundary (created by App) // in div (created by App) // in App logComponentStackToMyService(info.componentStack); }
render() {
if (this.state.hasError) {
// You can render any custom fallback UI
return <h1>Something went wrong.</h1>;
}

return this.props.children;
}
}

Production and development builds of React slightly differ in the way componentDidCatch() handles errors.


On development, the errors will bubble up to window , this means that any window.onerror or window.addEventListener('error', callback) will intercept the errors that have been caught by componentDidCatch() .


On production, instead, the errors will not bubble up, which means any ancestor error handler will only receive errors not explicitly caught by componentDidCatch() .



Note


In the event of an error, you can render a fallback UI with componentDidCatch() by calling setState , but this will be deprecated in a future release.
Use static getDerivedStateFromError() to handle fallback rendering instead.





Legacy Lifecycle Methods


The lifecycle methods below are marked as “legacy”. They still work, but we don’t recommend using them in the new code. You can learn more about migrating away from legacy lifecycle methods in this blog post.


UNSAFE_componentWillMount()


UNSAFE_componentWillMount()


Note


This lifecycle was previously named componentWillMount . That name will continue to work until version 17. Use the rename-unsafe-lifecycles codemod to automatically update your components.



UNSAFE_componentWillMount() is invoked just before mounting occurs. It is called before render() , therefore calling setState() synchronously in this method will not trigger an extra rendering. Generally, we recommend using the constructor() instead for initializing state.


Avoid introducing any side-effects or subscriptions in this method. For those use cases, use componentDidMount() instead.


This is the only lifecycle method called on server rendering.




UNSAFE_componentWillReceiveProps()


UNSAFE_componentWillReceiveProps(nextProps)


Note


This lifecycle was previously named componentWillReceiveProps . That name will continue to work until version 17. Use the rename-unsafe-lifecycles codemod to automatically update your components.




Note:


Using this lifecycle method often leads to bugs and inconsistencies



  • If you need to perform a side effect (for example, data fetching or an animation) in response to a change in props, use componentDidUpdate lifecycle instead.

  • If you used componentWillReceiveProps for re-computing some data only when a prop changes , use a memoization helper instead.

  • If you used componentWillReceiveProps to “reset” some state when a prop changes , consider either making a component fully controlled or fully uncontrolled with a key instead.


For other use cases, follow the recommendations in this blog post about derived state.



UNSAFE_componentWillReceiveProps() is invoked before a mounted component receives new props. If you need to update the state in response to prop changes (for example, to reset it), you may compare this.props and nextProps and perform state transitions using this.setState() in this method.


Note that if a parent component causes your component to re-render, this method will be called even if props have not changed. Make sure to compare the current and next values if you only want to handle changes.


React doesn’t call UNSAFE_componentWillReceiveProps() with initial props during mounting. It only calls this method if some of component’s props may update. Calling this.setState() generally doesn’t trigger UNSAFE_componentWillReceiveProps() .




UNSAFE_componentWillUpdate()


UNSAFE_componentWillUpdate(nextProps, nextState)


Note


This lifecycle was previously named componentWillUpdate . That name will continue to work until version 17. Use the rename-unsafe-lifecycles codemod to automatically update your components.



UNSAFE_componentWillUpdate() is invoked just before rendering when new props or state are being received. Use this as an opportunity to perform preparation before an update occurs. This method is not called for the initial render.


Note that you cannot call this.setState() here; nor should you do anything else (e.g. dispatch a Redux action) that would trigger an update to a React component before UNSAFE_componentWillUpdate() returns.


Typically, this method can be replaced by componentDidUpdate() . If you were reading from the DOM in this method (e.g. to save a scroll position), you can move that logic to getSnapshotBeforeUpdate() .



Note


UNSAFE_componentWillUpdate() will not be invoked if shouldComponentUpdate() returns false.





Other APIs


Unlike the lifecycle methods above (which React calls for you), the methods below are the methods you can call from your components.


There are just two of them: setState() and forceUpdate() .


setState()


setState(updater[, callback])

setState() enqueues changes to the component state and tells React that this component and its children need to be re-rendered with the updated state. This is the primary method you use to update the user interface in response to event handlers and server responses.


Think of setState() as a request rather than an immediate command to update the component. For better perceived performance, React may delay it, and then update several components in a single pass. In the rare case that you need to force the DOM update to be applied synchronously, you may wrap it in flushSync , but this may hurt performance.


setState() does not always immediately update the component. It may batch or defer the update until later. This makes reading this.state right after calling setState() a potential pitfall. Instead, use componentDidUpdate or a setState callback ( setState(updater, callback) ), either of which are guaranteed to fire after the update has been applied. If you need to set the state based on the previous state, read about the updater argument below.


setState() will always lead to a re-render unless shouldComponentUpdate() returns false . If mutable objects are being used and conditional rendering logic cannot be implemented in shouldComponentUpdate() , calling setState() only when the new state differs from the previous state will avoid unnecessary re-renders.


The first argument is an updater function with the signature:


(state, props) => stateChange

state is a reference to the component state at the time the change is being applied. It should not be directly mutated. Instead, changes should be represented by building a new object based on the input from state and props . For instance, suppose we wanted to increment a value in state by props.step :


this.setState((state, props) => {
return {counter: state.counter + props.step};
});

Both state and props received by the updater function are guaranteed to be up-to-date. The output of the updater is shallowly merged with state .


The second parameter to setState() is an optional callback function that will be executed once setState is completed and the component is re-rendered. Generally we recommend using componentDidUpdate() for such logic instead.


You may optionally pass an object as the first argument to setState() instead of a function:


setState(stateChange[, callback])

This performs a shallow merge of stateChange into the new state, e.g., to adjust a shopping cart item quantity:


this.setState({quantity: 2})

This form of setState() is also asynchronous, and multiple calls during the same cycle may be batched together. For example, if you attempt to increment an item quantity more than once in the same cycle, that will result in the equivalent of:


Object.assign(
previousState,
{quantity: state.quantity + 1},
{quantity: state.quantity + 1},
...
)

Subsequent calls will override values from previous calls in the same cycle, so the quantity will only be incremented once. If the next state depends on the current state, we recommend using the updater function form, instead:


this.setState((state) => {
return {quantity: state.quantity + 1};
});

For more detail, see:



  • State and Lifecycle guide

  • In depth: When and why are setState() calls batched?

  • In depth: Why isn’t this.state updated immediately?




forceUpdate()


component.forceUpdate(callback)

By default, when your component’s state or props change, your component will re-render. If your render() method depends on some other data, you can tell React that the component needs re-rendering by calling forceUpdate() .


Calling forceUpdate() will cause render() to be called on the component, skipping shouldComponentUpdate() . This will trigger the normal lifecycle methods for child components, including the shouldComponentUpdate() method of each child. React will still only update the DOM if the markup changes.


Normally you should try to avoid all uses of forceUpdate() and only read from this.props and this.state in render() .




Class Properties


defaultProps


defaultProps can be defined as a property on the component class itself, to set the default props for the class. This is used for undefined props, but not for null props. For example:


class CustomButton extends React.Component {
// ...
}

CustomButton.defaultProps = {
color: 'blue'
};

If props.color is not provided, it will be set by default to 'blue' :


  render() {
return <CustomButton /> ; // props.color will be set to blue
}

If props.color is set to null , it will remain null :


  render() {
return <CustomButton color={null} /> ; // props.color will remain null
}



displayName


The displayName string is used in debugging messages. Usually, you don’t need to set it explicitly because it’s inferred from the name of the function or class that defines the component. You might want to set it explicitly if you want to display a different name for debugging purposes or when you create a higher-order component, see Wrap the Display Name for Easy Debugging for details.




Instance Properties


props


this.props contains the props that were defined by the caller of this component. See Components and Props for an introduction to props.


In particular, this.props.children is a special prop, typically defined by the child tags in the JSX expression rather than in the tag itself.


state


The state contains data specific to this component that may change over time. The state is user-defined, and it should be a plain JavaScript object.


If some value isn’t used for rendering or data flow (for example, a timer ID), you don’t have to put it in the state. Such values can be defined as fields on the component instance.


See State and Lifecycle for more information about the state.


Never mutate this.state directly, as calling setState() afterwards may replace the mutation you made. Treat this.state as if it were immutable.

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ReactDOM – React

ReactDOM

The react-dom package provides DOM-specific methods that can be used at the top level of your app and as an escape hatch to get outside the React model if you need to.


import * as ReactDOM from 'react-dom';

If you use ES5 with npm, you can write:


var ReactDOM = require('react-dom');

The react-dom package also provides modules specific to client and server apps:



Overview


The react-dom package exports these methods:



  • createPortal()

  • flushSync()


These react-dom methods are also exported, but are considered legacy:



  • render()

  • hydrate()

  • findDOMNode()

  • unmountComponentAtNode()



Note:


Both render and hydrate have been replaced with new client methods in React 18. These methods will warn that your app will behave as if it’s running React 17 (learn more here).



Browser Support


React supports all modern browsers, although some polyfills are required for older versions.



Note


We do not support older browsers that don’t support ES5 methods or microtasks such as Internet Explorer. You may find that your apps do work in older browsers if polyfills such as es5-shim and es5-sham are included in the page, but you’re on your own if you choose to take this path.



Reference


createPortal()


createPortal(child, container)

Creates a portal. Portals provide a way to render children into a DOM node that exists outside the hierarchy of the DOM component.


flushSync()


flushSync(callback)

Force React to flush any updates inside the provided callback synchronously. This ensures that the DOM is updated immediately.


// Force this state update to be synchronous.
flushSync(() => {
setCount(count + 1);
});
// By this point, DOM is updated.


Note:


flushSync can significantly hurt performance. Use sparingly.


flushSync may force pending Suspense boundaries to show their fallback state.


flushSync may also run pending effects and synchronously apply any updates they contain before returning.


flushSync may also flush updates outside the callback when necessary to flush the updates inside the callback. For example, if there are pending updates from a click, React may flush those before flushing the updates inside the callback.



Legacy Reference


render()


render(element, container[, callback])


Note:


render has been replaced with createRoot in React 18. See createRoot for more info.



Render a React element into the DOM in the supplied container and return a reference to the component (or returns null for stateless components).


If the React element was previously rendered into container , this will perform an update on it and only mutate the DOM as necessary to reflect the latest React element.


If the optional callback is provided, it will be executed after the component is rendered or updated.



Note:


render() controls the contents of the container node you pass in. Any existing DOM elements inside are replaced when first called. Later calls use React’s DOM diffing algorithm for efficient updates.


render() does not modify the container node (only modifies the children of the container). It may be possible to insert a component to an existing DOM node without overwriting the existing children.


render() currently returns a reference to the root ReactComponent instance. However, using this return value is legacy
and should be avoided because future versions of React may render components asynchronously in some cases. If you need a reference to the root ReactComponent instance, the preferred solution is to attach a
callback ref to the root element.


Using render() to hydrate a server-rendered container is deprecated. Use hydrateRoot() instead.





hydrate()


hydrate(element, container[, callback])


Note:


hydrate has been replaced with hydrateRoot in React 18. See hydrateRoot for more info.



Same as render() , but is used to hydrate a container whose HTML contents were rendered by ReactDOMServer . React will attempt to attach event listeners to the existing markup.


React expects that the rendered content is identical between the server and the client. It can patch up differences in text content, but you should treat mismatches as bugs and fix them. In development mode, React warns about mismatches during hydration. There are no guarantees that attribute differences will be patched up in case of mismatches. This is important for performance reasons because in most apps, mismatches are rare, and so validating all markup would be prohibitively expensive.


If a single element’s attribute or text content is unavoidably different between the server and the client (for example, a timestamp), you may silence the warning by adding suppressHydrationWarning={true} to the element. It only works one level deep, and is intended to be an escape hatch. Don’t overuse it. Unless it’s text content, React still won’t attempt to patch it up, so it may remain inconsistent until future updates.


If you intentionally need to render something different on the server and the client, you can do a two-pass rendering. Components that render something different on the client can read a state variable like this.state.isClient , which you can set to true in componentDidMount() . This way the initial render pass will render the same content as the server, avoiding mismatches, but an additional pass will happen synchronously right after hydration. Note that this approach will make your components slower because they have to render twice, so use it with caution.


Remember to be mindful of user experience on slow connections. The JavaScript code may load significantly later than the initial HTML render, so if you render something different in the client-only pass, the transition can be jarring. However, if executed well, it may be beneficial to render a “shell” of the application on the server, and only show some of the extra widgets on the client. To learn how to do this without getting the markup mismatch issues, refer to the explanation in the previous paragraph.




unmountComponentAtNode()


unmountComponentAtNode(container)


Note:


unmountComponentAtNode has been replaced with root.unmount() in React 18. See createRoot for more info.



Remove a mounted React component from the DOM and clean up its event handlers and state. If no component was mounted in the container, calling this function does nothing. Returns true if a component was unmounted and false if there was no component to unmount.




findDOMNode()



Note:


findDOMNode is an escape hatch used to access the underlying DOM node. In most cases, use of this escape hatch is discouraged because it pierces the component abstraction. It has been deprecated in StrictMode .



findDOMNode(component)

If this component has been mounted into the DOM, this returns the corresponding native browser DOM element. This method is useful for reading values out of the DOM, such as form field values and performing DOM measurements. In most cases, you can attach a ref to the DOM node and avoid using findDOMNode at all.


When a component renders to null or false , findDOMNode returns null . When a component renders to a string, findDOMNode returns a text DOM node containing that value. As of React 16, a component may return a fragment with multiple children, in which case findDOMNode will return the DOM node corresponding to the first non-empty child.



Note:


findDOMNode only works on mounted components (that is, components that have been placed in the DOM). If you try to call this on a component that has not been mounted yet (like calling findDOMNode() in render() on a component that has yet to be created) an exception will be thrown.


findDOMNode cannot be used on function components.




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